Revised 02/12/2019




[KIEV281] Rurik (a Scandinavian warrior born in Friesland, but of doubtful origin), DUKE OF NOVGOROD (c.862), married Efanda of Novgorod. He died c.879.

[KIEV291] Igor (Ingvar) the old of Kiev (born c.877) married (c.903) Olga of Pskov /Pleskau (later baptised at Constantinople and given the name Elena, daughter of Danish Prince Helgi II of Kiev, born 872, died 912, son of Izborsk of Oklogsland). He was DUKE OF KIEV (c.912-45), and was slain while collecting tribute from the Derevlyanins (945). Afterwards, Olga was REGENT OF KIEV (945-64), and died at Kiev (11th July 969). Olga afterwards became Saint Olga.

[KIEV301] Svyatoslav I (born c.942) married Predslava (daughter of Prince Taksony of Hungary). He also had two mistresses: 1. Esfir and 2. [LUBE302] Malusha (born 940, a household servant of his mother, and daughter of [LUBE291] Prince Malk of the Drevianes, son of [LUBE281] Prince Dir of Kiev, son of [LUBE271] Swedish Ruler Askold of Kiev, killed 882). He was DUKE OF KIEV (945-72), and was slain near the rapids by the River Dnieper (March 972), by Kurya, the Pecheneg prince, who then made a drinking cup out of his close-shaven skull.

[KIEV319] Vladimir I the Saint (youngest son of Svyatoslav, by his mistress Malusha), took Kiev from his half-brother Yaropolk (legitimate son of their father), slew him, and thus became DUKE OF KIEV (978). He married 1. (in Scandinavia, c.977-80) Olava of Sweden; then 2. (c.977) [POLK322] Rogneda (daughter of Prince Rogvold of Polatsk, see POLATSK PRINCEDOM), divorced 986, became a nun, died 1002; then 3. --- (possibly Griechin, widow of Jaropolks); then 4. --- (possibly Tschechin); then 5. Adela (of Bulgaria); then 6. (in Crimea, 988) Anna Porthyrogenita (born 963, daughter of EMPEROR ROMANOS I), died 1011; then 7. --- (unnamed daughter of DUKE CONRAD I OF SWABIA (see SWABIA DUKEDOM). Other sources give variations in the order these marriages took place, and he is also said to have had 3,500 concubines. His wife Rogneda was seated at Lybed, and he had many other wives elsewhere.

Despite having committed fratricide, and being a monster of cruelty and lust, it is said that at some point he decided to investigate the major religions. He rejected the Moslem creed because it condemned strong drink. He rejected the Jewish faith saying if their God loved them, they would not have been dispersed over foreign lands. This left the Christian Church, particularly that of Byzantium, with its mosaics, solemn music, swinging incense, its resplendent vestments and ordered ritual. A commission of inquiry, thrilled by the brilliance of a service such as only St. Sophia could provide, came out strongly in favour of the Greek religion, reporting:

"When we journeyed among the Bulgarians, we beheld how they worship in their temple called a mosque, while they stand upright. The Bulgarian bows, sits down, looks hither and thither like one possessed, and there is no happiness among them, but instead only sorrow and a dreadful stench. Their religion is not good.

"Then we went to the Germans and saw them performing many ceremonies in their temples; but we beheld no glory there.

"Then we went on to Greece, and the Greeks led us to edifices where they worship their God and we knew not whether we were in heaven or on earth."

His mind made up, the process of conversion to Byzantine Christianity was carried out ruthlessly. He seized Chersonesos in Crimea, and threatened to kill all its inhabitants unless he was given the hand of a Byzantine princess. The blackmail worked. He was baptised Basil (in honour of EMPEROR BASIL II) at Chersonesos (988), and he afterwards married Anna Porthyrogenita.

Other versions tell a less colourful story, stating he was simply offered Anna's hand in marriage in exchange for helping the Emperor to deal with an internal revolt, provided he also converted to Christianity. Anyway, he returned to Kiev in triumph with his new wife, destroyed pagan monuments and established many churches. Thus Kiev became a Christian city.

Vladimir died at Berestovo, near Kiev, (15th July 1015) on his way to chastise the insolence of his son Jaroslaf I. He was later canonized, and the feast day of St. Vladimir is celebrated on 15th July.

The ruins of Chersonesos are on the outskirts of present-day Sevastopol (Ukraine). Kiev is the present-day capital of the Ukraine.

Customs office on quay-side

(28 April 2008)

Site of Charge of the Light Brigade
near Balaclava
(28 April 2008)

[KIEV323] --- (unnamed illegitimate daughter of Vladimir) married [SNOR361] March Count Bernard I (see NORDMARK (SAXON)).

[KIEV322] Dobronega Maria (born 1015, daughter of Vladimir & one of his last concubines) married [POLA321] DUKE KAZIMIERZ I (see POLAND DUKEDOM).

[KIEV321] Jaroslaf (or Yury) I the wise (born c.978, younger son of Vladimir & Rogneda) married 1. Anna; then 2. (1019) [SWED312] Princess Enguerherda Olafsdottir (daughter of King Olaf Eiriksson skotkonung, see SWEDEN KINGDOM). Jaroslaf's father gave him the city of Rostov (988), and he later ruled Novgorod (1010-19). He was GRAND DUKE OF KIEV (1019-54), and King of Russia. Enguerherda died 10th February 1050, and Jaroslaf died 20th February 1054. His death resulted in family feuds lasting until 1077, as the succession had always been based on the eldest member of the extended family.

[KIEV333] Anastasia (born c.1023, eldest daughter of Jaroslaf & Enguerherda) married (1039) [HUNG311] King Andrew I (see HUNGARY).

[KIEV332] Anne (born c.1024, daughter of Jaroslaf & Enguerherda) married 1. (at Reims, 1051) [CAPE331] King Henri I (see CAPETIAN HOUSE); then 2. Count Raoul II of Vermandois. Anne died 1076.

[KIEV331] Iziaslav I (born 1024, son of Jaroslaf & Enguerherda) married 1. (c.1043) Gertrude (born 1025, daughter of King Mieszko II, see POLAND DUKEDOM). He was GRAND DUKE OF KIEV (1054-1068, deposed by a great-grandson of Vladimir I, and fled to Poland), then restored (1069-1073, deposed by his brother Sviatopolk I), then restored (1077). He died in battle at Chernihiv (3rd October 1078). Gertrude died in Kiev (4th January 1107-08). Gertrude herself recorded that she only had one son, Yaropolk, by which it is assumed Sviatopolk II (below) was illegitimate. She died 4th January 1107.

[KIEV341] Sviatopolk II (born 1050, illegitimate son of Iziaslav, by his mistress) of Novgorod married 1. [TUGO342] Princess Elena Tugorovna of the Kumans [Kiev]; then 2. (1094) --- of Polowzen (unnamed daughter of Khumanenkst Tugor); 3. (1103) Barbara Komnena. Another source says he married 1. --- (unnamed Bohemian Princess); then 2. Elena (daughter of Tugorkhan, Khan of the Kumans). In both cases, his 1st and 2nd wives appear to be the same person. He was GRAND DUKE OF KIEV (1093-1113), and died 16th April 1113.

[KIEV352] Sbislava/Zbyslava (born 1090, daughter of Sviatopolk & Elena) married (15th November 1102) [POLA341] DUKE BOLESLAW III (see POLAND DUKEDOM). Sbislava was apparently born 4 years before her parents married, and apparently age 15 when their son Wladyslaw was born (1105). Also, Sbislava was only age 24 when she died (1114).